Research, understanding, practice
Research, understanding, practice
PODDS has delivered valuable practical research outputs from exploration of all aspects of discolouration, coupled with discussion and debate that is informed by wide ranging real world examples and situations from multiple project partners. The outcomes have seen delivery of evidence based pioneering strategies, including industry accepted monitoring and modelling tools, widespread inclusion in PR19 submissions, long term operational benefits, improved risk management and significant cost-savings with improvements in levels of service and customer satisfaction.
In July 2019 OFWAT published their emerging strategy for regulating water in which they state "that the adoption of innovative approaches is key to delivering long-term resilience... in a cost-effective and sustainable way" and a desire "to see companies work more effectively together and with their supply chain to better tackle these challenges." These declarations echo the work and achievements of the PODDS project since its inception.
To sustain and grow PODDS delivered advances and promote desirable pro-active and efficient water quality management strategies, a two year #PODDS project is proposed with an estimated (based on proposed work and current consortium size) annual fee of circa £9,000 to continue the research and development, current company bespoke support and facilitate sharing of best practices. The research will focus on improving understanding of asset deterioration rates that are critical to inform operational and maintenance schedules whilst investigating value obtainable from location, extent, hosting and interpretation of data from network monitoring.
CCWI 2019 extended abstract submissions:
The operational value of inlet monitoring at service reservoirs, A Doronina, S Husband, J Boxall and V Speight.
Discolouration modelling, S Husband, J Boxall and M Al-Saffar.
Long-term discolouration modelling for cast iron mains, M Al-Saffar and S Husband.
PODDS related company publications:
June 2016 – Scottish Water Vision magazine '... £15 million saving...'
September 2016 – Northumbrian Water in Water and Wastewater Treatment '... 90% capital cost saving...'
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, 11–15 November 2018, Toronto, Canada – presentation.
PODDS+ proposal. A two-year PODDS Club membership is proposed to enable the ongoing development of research led industry benefits in discolouration management supporting AMP delivery. The aim of the club is to enable participating companies to continue and enhance reported benefits, including significant cost savings, improved water quality, regulatory compliance and reduced customer contacts. This will be achieved by ongoing technical support that will include provision of discolouration risk analysis, network planning and delivery, monitoring and modelling and leading of a specialist group. A copy of the collaboration agreement is here.
Phosphate dosing: investigating water quality impact in distribution systems. As the water sector progresses towards lead pipe free distribution and premises systems it was suggested that the internationally unique pipe loop system at the University of Sheffield is ideally suited to investigate the impacts of phosphate dosing in real systems, including the microbiological and associated water quality aspects such as discolouration. This document sets out initial thoughts on what could be done.
Understanding and managing metals and organics through reservoirs and their impact on distributed water quality. This project proposal aims to understand the fate and transport of metals and organics from the treatment works through the water distribution network so that appropriate and cost effective management strategies can be implemented. Specifically, the study seeks to identify how and when different source and sink behaviours occur and how final treated water quality influences these behaviours.
Discolouration and chlorine research in drinking water distribution systems. This report details the research developed in conjunction with the PODDS V project by the University of Sheffield and Dwr Cymru Welsh Water (DCWW). The primary aim of this project was to explore in detail the impact of chlorine concentrations upon biofilm structure, accumulation and mobilisation behaviour in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). This was to be undertaken in the University of Sheffield's internationally unique pipe-loop research facility. In addition field trials were conducted to compliment the laboratory work with a view to investigating disinfectant residual impact upon material accumulation/regeneration rates in trunk mains.
Regulating discolouration in the UK. This document has been produced to stimulate discussion regarding the current regulation of discolouration related issues in the UK. It attempts to capture some key aspects that have arisen during PODDS events. The questions raised are substantive and potentially controversial.
NTU equivalence – set of plots that demonstrate how turbidity correlates with iron and manganese from national and international PODDS trials.
PODDS flow cytometry protocol. A protocol has been written (by Kat Fish and Stewart Husband) that uses sodium ascorbate for dechlorinating. Sodium ascorbate has been selected as it is basically vitamin C so is safer to handle, store, AWWA approved and not an oxygen scavenger like sodium thiosulphate.
PODDS guiding principles – based on over a decade of industry leading international research. Includes key innovative priorities for developing efficient, cost-effective pro-active discolouration management strategies and a flowsheet methodology for identifying and prioritising trunk main conditioning.
Some examples of PODDS mediated savings are highlighted in table (click table to get the PDF document).
PODDS Epanet model parameters can be seen here.
Steering group meetings
Third steering meeting, 5 September 2018, PLB, University of Sheffield: agenda, presentation and minutes.
W Furnass, S Mounce, S Husband, R Collins and J Boxall (2019)
Calibrating and validating a combined accumulation and mobilisation model for water distribution system discolouration using particle swarm optimisation. SMART WATER, Springer Open. DOI
I Douterelo, R L Sharpe, S Husband, K Fish and J Boxall (2018)
Understanding microbial ecology to improve management of drinking water distribution systems. WIREs Water. DOI
S Husband, K Fish, M Blokker and J Boxall (2018)
Understanding hydraulics and biofilm development to target flushing resources and manage discolouration in drinking water distribution systems. WQTC 2019, Toronto, Canada.
I Douterelo, C Calero and S Husband (2018)
Monitoring biofilm communities in operational drinking water distribution systems and the impact on water quality. WDSA-CCWI2018, Kingston, Canada.
S Husband and J Boxall (2018)
Understanding material accumulation and discolourati on risk in distribution networks. WDSA-CCWI2018, Kingston, Canada.
K Fish, S Husband and J Boxall (2018)
The impact of chlorine concentration on the discolouration response of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. WDSA-CCWI2018, Kingston, Canada.
M Al-Saffar and S Husband (2018)
Optimising flow conditioning in operational trunk mains for discolouration risk reduction and maintaining network resilience. WDSA-CCWI2018, Kingston, Canada.
E Kazemi, S Mounce, S Husband and J Boxall (2018)
Predicting turbidity in water distribution trunk mains using nonlinear autoregressive exogenous artificial neural networks. HIC 2018, Palermo, Italy
R L Sharpe, C Biggs and J Boxall (2017)
Hydraulic conditioning to manage potable water discolouration. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Water Management 0, 1–11. DOI
S Husband and J Boxall (2017).
Real time modelling of pipe wall material and managing the discolouration risk in distribution systems. WQT 2017, Portland, Oregon, USA.
I Sunny, S Husband, N Drake, K McKenzie and J Boxall (2017)
Quantity and quality benefits of in-service invasive cleaning of trunk mains. Drinking Engineering Science, 10, 1–8. DOI
S Husband, G Thomas and J Boxall (2016)
Operational strategies for sustainable drinking water distribution system maintenance. WQT 2016 Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
S R Mounce, E J M Blokker, S P Husband, W R Furnass, P G Schaap and J B Boxall (2016)
Multivariate data mining for estimating the rate of discolouration material accumulation in drinking water systems. Journal of Hydroinformatics, 18, pp. 96–114. DOI
E J M Blokker, W R Furnass, J Machell, S Mounce, P G Schapp, J Boxall (2016)
Relating water quality and age in drinking water distribution systems using self-organising maps. Environments [Online], 3, 10. DOI
K Fish, A Osbourn and J Boxall (2016)
Characterising and understanding the impact of microbial biofilms and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix in drinking water distribution systems. Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology. DOI
P S Husband, K Fish, I Douterelo, J Boxall (2016)
Linking discolouration modelling and biofilm behaviour within drinking water distribution systems. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 16.4, pp. 942–950. DOI
D M Cook, P S Husband and J B Boxall (2016)
Operational management of trunk main discolouration risk. Urban Water Journal. DOI
S R Mounce, R B Mounce and J B Boxall (2016)
Case-based reasoning to support decision making for managing drinking water quality events in distribution systems. Urban Water Journal, 13 (7), pp. 727–738.
S R Mounce, J W Gaffney, S Boult, J B Boxall (2015)
Automated data driven approaches to evaluating and interpreting water quality time series data from water distribution systems. ASCE Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, vol. 141 (11), pp. 1–11.
E J M Blokker and P G Schapp (2015)
Particle accumulation rate of drinking water distribution systems determined by incoming turbidity. Procedia Engineering, 119 (CCWI), pp. 290–298.
S Jones, R Collins and J Boxall (2015)
Do transients contribute to turbidity failures of water distribution systems? Pressure Surges 2015, Dublin, Ireland.
K Ellis, S Mounce, J Edwards, V Speight, N Jakomis and J Boxall (2015)
Interpreting and estimating the risk of iron failures. Procedia Engineering 119 (CCWI), pp. 299–308.
S Husband, M Jackson and J Boxall (2015)
Identifying material accumulation processes in drinking water distribution systems with extended period Epanet MSX turbidity simulations. Procedia Engineering, vol. 119, pp. 398–406. DOI
S Husband and J Boxall (2015)
Predictive water quality modelling and resilience flow conditioning to manage discolouration risk in operational trunk mains. IWA Publishing Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA 64.5, pp. 529–542. DOI
S Husband, I Douterelo, K Fish and J Boxall (2015)
Biofilms and discolouration material accumulation processes in drinking water distribution systems and modelling the hydraulic mobilisation. IWA Specialized Conference: biofilms in drinking water systems, Arosa, Switzerland, August 2015.
S Husband, M Jackson and J Boxall (2015)
Identifying material accumulation processes in drinking water distribution systems with extended period Epanet MSX turbidity simulations. 13th Computer Control for Water Industry Conference, CCWI, Leicester, UK September 2015.
K Fish, R Collins, N Green, R L Sharpe, A Osbourn and J Boxall (2015)
Characterisation of the physical composition and microbial community structure of biofilms within a model full-scale drinking water distribution system. PLOS ONE, 10.
I Douterelo, J Boxall, P Dienes, R Sekar, K Fish, and C Biggs (2014)
Methodological approaches for studying the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems. Water Research, 65, pp. 134–156.
I Douterelo, R L Sharpe and J Boxall (2014)
Bacterial community dynamics during the early stages of biofilm formation in a chlorinated experimental drinking water distribution system: implications for drinking water discolouration. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 117, pp. 286–301.
S R Mounce, P S Husband, W R Furnass and J B Boxall (2014)
Multivariate data mining for estimating the rate of discolouration material accumulation in drinking water systems. 16th Conference on Water Distribution System Analysis, WDSA 2014, Bari, Italy. Conference presentation can be found here.
I Douterelo, S Husband, J Boxall (2014)
The bacteriological composition of biomass recovered by flushing an operational drinking water distribution system. Water Research, vol. 54, 1 May 2014, pp. 100–114. DOI
W R Furnass, R P Collins, P S Husband, R L Sharpe, S R Mounce and J B Boxall (2014)
Modelling both the continual erosion and regeneration of discolouration material in drinking water distribution systems. IWA Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 14 (1), pp. 81–90.
S Husband, J Mistry and J Boxall (2013)
Modelling and flow conditioning to manage discolouration in trunk mains. 12th International Conference on Computing and Control for the Water Industry, CCWI 2013, Perugia, Italy, 2–5 September 2013.
I Douterelo, R L Sharpe and J Boxall (2013)
Influence of hydraulic regimes on bacterial community structure and composition in an experimental drinking water distribution system. Water Research, vol. 47, issue 2, 1 February 2013, pp. 503–516. DOI
W R Furnass, R P Collins, P S Husband, R L Sharpe, S R Mounce and J B Boxall (2012)
Modelling both the continual erosion and regeneration of discolouration material in drinking water distribution systems. IWA New Developments in IT and Water Conference, Amsterdam 4–6 November 2012.
D Cook and J Boxall (2011)
Discolouration material accumulation in water distribution systems. Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice, 2 (4), pp. 113–122.
S Husband and J B Boxall (2011)
Asset deterioration and discolouration in water distribution systems. Water Research 45, pp. 113–124. DOI
R Sharpe, C J Smith, C A Biggs and J B Boxall (2010)
Pilot scale laboratory investigations into the impact of steady state conditioning flow on potable water discolouration. Water Distribution System Analysis 2010, Tucson, Arizona, USA, 12–15 September.
P Dienes, R Sekar, S Husband, J B Boxall, A M Osborn and C A Biggs (2010)
A new coupon design for simultaneous analysis of in situ microbial biofilm formation and community structure in drinking water distribution systems. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 87, pp. 749–756. DOI
S Husband and J B Boxall (2010)
Field studies of discolouration in water distribution systems: model verification and practical implications. Journal of Environmental Engineering 136 (1), pp. 86–94. DOI
A Seth, S Husband and J B Boxall (2009)
Rivelin trunk main flow test. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computing and Control for the Water Industry, CCWI, 1–3 September, Sheffield, UK.
S Husband, J Whitehead and J B Boxall (2009)
Long term trunk main monitoring yields operational dividends. Third Biennial Conference of the UK Network on Potable Water Treatment and Supply, Buxton, 1–2 June 2009.
P S Husband and J B Boxall (2008)
Water distribution system asset deterioration and impact on water quality – a case study. ASCE World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, May 13–16, Ahupua'a, Hawaii, USA.
J H G Vreeburg and J B Boxall (2007)
Discolouration in potable water distribution systems: a review. Water Research 41, pp. 519–529.
S Husband and J B Boxall (2007)
Repeat DMA flushing operations: discolouration comparison, modelling and management. Proceedings of the EPSRC Developments in Water Treatment and Supply, 4–5 July 2007, Bath, UK.
J B Boxall and N Dewis (2005)
Identification of discolouration risk through simplified modelling. Proceedings of the ASCE, EWRI, World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, May 15–19, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
J B Boxall, A J Saul and P J Skipworth (2004)
Modelling for hydraulic capacity. Journal of the American Water Works Association, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 161–169.
J B Boxall, P J Skipworth and A J Saul (2003)
Aggressive flushing for discolouration event mitigation in water distribution networks. Water Science and Technology – Water Supply vol. 3, part 1/,2 pp. 179–186.
J B Boxall, D M Unwin, P S Husband, A J Saul, N Dewis, J D Gunstead (2003)
Water quality in distribution systems: rehabilitation and maintenance strategies. Proceedings of the International CCWI conference, Advances in Water Supply Management, 15–17 September 2003, Imperial College London, UK.
J B Boxall, A J Saul, J D Gunstead, N Dewis (2003)
Regeneration of discolouration in distribution systems. Proceedings of the ASCE, EWRI, World Water and Environmental Resources Conference, 23–26 June 2003, Philadelphia, USA.
A Seth, R T Bachmann, J B Boxall, A J Saul and R Edyvean (2003)
Characterisation of materials causing discolouration in potable water systems. Water Science and Technology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 27–32.
J B Boxall, P J Skipworth and A J Saul (2001)
A novel approach to modelling sediment movement in distribution mains based on particle characteristics. Water Software Systems, vol. 1: Theory and Applications (Water Engineering & Management). B Ulanicki, B Coulbeck and J P Rance, Research Studies Press, Hertfordshire, UK, pp. 263–273.